Hepatitis B is a viral infection that attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic disease.
The liver is one of the most important organ in the human system, it is located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. The liver has multiple function some of which include; it process nutrient absorbed from the small intestine, it detoxifies potential harmful chemicals , it metabolizes drugs , the liver also makes protein for blood clotting and many other functions.
Hepatitis B is a life threatening viral infection of the liver which is a major global health problem. It can cause chronic infection and puts people at high risk of death. According to WHO in 2015, 257 million people were living with chronic hepatitis B infection which resulted in 887,000 deaths worldwide.
MODES OF TRANSMISSION OF HEPATITIS B
Hepatitis B transmission is commonly spread through mother to child during child birth and getting into contact with infected blood and body fluids such as saliva, vaginal and seminal fluids. Transmission is also through sexual intercourse with infected person, it is also spread through the use of razors contaminated with the virus and tattooing. Etc
SYMPTOMS OF HEPATITIS B
There is an acute illness which present with symptoms such as, yellowing of the skin and eye, loss of appetite, dark urine, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, fatigue.
Vaccination is the linchpin of preventing hepatitis B infection. WHO recommends that all infants receive the hepatitis B vaccine soon after birth, preferably within 24 hours.
There is a three dose vaccine schedule for hepatitis B, of which the 1st dose is given at any time but new born soon after delivery, 2nd dose is given at least a month after the first dose or 28 days and the 3rd dose is given at least 16weeks after 1st dose and at least 8weeks after 2nd dose.
A complete series of vaccination provides protection for at least 25 years and, according to current scientific evidence, probably for life.
The hepatitis B virus can survive outside the body for at least 7 days. During this time, the virus can still cause infection if it enters the body of a person who is not protected by the vaccine. Other preventive measures include: practicing safe sex, screening of blood, prevent the sharing of razors and needles and wearing of protective equipment’s during medical and surgical procedures