Kidney stones are hard deposits of minerals and acid salts that stick together in concentrated urine. They form inside the kidney and can travel to other parts of the urinary tract. These can be very painful when passing through the urinary tract. Stones vary in size but the stones do not cause any permanent damage if they are recognized at early stages.
Causes of Kidney Stones
Many factors make one prone to kidney stones.
- Lack of Water in the body. This is the leading cause of kidney stones. Stones are more likely to be formed in people who drink less water daily.
- It is more common in men than females.
- A family history of kidney stone also increases ones chance of developing them.
- Certain medications can also increase the risk of developing the stones. Scientists found that topiramate (Topamax), a drug commonly prescribed to treat seizures and migraine headaches, can increase the likelihood of the stones.
Signs And Symptoms of Kidney Stones.
A kidney stone may not cause symptoms until it moves around within your kidney or passes into your ureter — the tube connecting the kidney and bladder. At that point, you may experience these signs and symptoms:
- Pain during urination. Passing stones through urinary tracts can be very painful.
- Pain radiating from the lower abdomen and groin.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Cloudy or smelly urine.
- Reddish-brown urine.
- Urinating more than usual.
- Blood in urine sometimes.
- Going small amount at a time.
- Fever and chills
Treatment of Kidney Stones
- Most common and effective way of treating kidney stones is drinking enough water. Mostly, stones eventually pass from the kidney through the ureter and bladder and finally through the urethra on their own. Water plays an important role by helping flush the stones out. Other fluids also help get rid of the stones.
- Other types of medications are also used to speed up the flow of stones out of the body. Calcium channel blockers and alpha blockers are two classes of drugs that have been shown to speed the passage of kidney stones by relaxing the spasming ureter.
- Medical Procedure.
The stones can sometimes be removed at the hospital by surgery. Also, Lithotripsy can be administered. Lithotripsy uses sound waves to break up large kidney stones into smaller pieces. These sound waves are also called high-energy shock waves.